Indicators of Climate change (ICC); a software that can analyze millions of data in seconds

Indicators of Climate change (ICC); a software that can analyze millions of data in seconds

The intergovernmental panel on climate change defined the indicators that allow to identify or find the evidences of climate change.  Some indicators are related to temperature and others to rainfall.

Before entering the subject, it is necessary to define two terms: indicator and indexes.

  • An Index (from Latin index) is a sign or signal something. It can be the numerical expression of the relationship between two quantities or indicators.
  • An Indicator is a procedure that allows to quantify or associate a phenomenon; it serves to “indicate” or suggest the existence of certain characteristics in the phenomenon under study, often to record its changes

 Climate change indicators are intended to be mathematical elements (indexes) used to identify, register, meet and make clear climate change later relate these changes to the responses of organisms, with crops, livestock and forestry with aspects of health and environmental risks

Some are related to extreme high or low temperatures: Consecutive dry days (CDD); Ice days (ID); Cold spell duration index (CSDI); Summer days (SU); Diurnal temperature range (DTR); Cold nights (TN10p); Frost days FD; Warm nights (TN90p); Growing season length (GSL); Lowest minimum temperature (TNn); Highest minimum temperature (TNx); Cool days (TX10p); Hot days (TX90p); Lowest maximum temperature (TXn); Highest maximum temperature (TXx); Warm spell durationi ndex (WSDI); Tropical nights (TR); and Consecutive days over 40 °C (DC40).

Slide1

Other indices are related to extreme rainfall events:
5-day maximum rainfall (RX5Day); Simple daily intensity index (SDII); Consecutive wet days (CWD); Total annual rainfall (PRCPTOT); Heavy precipitation days index (R10mm); Very heavy precipitation days (R20mm); Very wet days (R95p); Extremely wet days (R99p); Days with more than nn of rainfall (Rnnmm); and 1-day maximum rainfall (RX1Day).Slide2

The “Indicators of climate change” software is a tool for climatology experts and non-experts interested in the climate such as geographers, agricultural and forestry biologists, zootechnicians, environmental consultants, engineers, architects and a long etcetera. It is an intuitive software, using colors to guide the user in the interpretation of the changing trends.

Slide3

Using daily data, this software provides the same results as the analysis of trends in weather elements, but it also suggests the harm or benefit that that would be caused by specific changes in climate, e.g., changes in cold nights, warm nights, cool days, hot days, the simple daily intensity index and very humid days, among others.

In this way, the CCI software is an informatic tool that, using daily local data, can be useful to detect the direction, magnitude and significance of climate change. After detecting a change, the software attempts to correlate it with agricultural production, the migration of wildlife species, livestock productivity, possible changes in the phenology of plants, aspects of human health, disaster risk forecast, the spread of pests, the presence of invasive species and other processes associated with climate change.

Software

Análisis de las tendencias de cambio climático: resultados generados con Clic-MD Más información: Pagina oficial: www.actswithscience.com Facebook: …

Soil & Environment (S&E)

Software to evaluate the environmental functions of the soils with the profile data. S&E is possible: • To shape stages of conservation and degradation for soil …

Correlation between heavy metals and magnetic properties in soils of Mexico City

Correlation between heavy metals and magnetic properties in soils of Mexico City

By Rubén Cejudo, Francisco Bautista, Patricia Quintana, Carmen Delgado, Daniel Aguilar, Avto Goguichaishvili y Juan Morales.

The Mexico City has not system of environment monitoring that evaluate fast and reliable the quality of soil in term of pollution by potentially toxic elements. Diverse researches in soil showed a correlation between potentially toxic elements and magnetic parameters however none have expressed a threshold value that determinate a contaminated soil.

The aim of this work was to identify those magnetic parameters that express a strong correlation statistical with the concentration of potentially toxic elements and stabilizing a threshold value for this magnetic parameter that will allow the identification of contaminated soil of form fast and reliable.

The use of magnetic parameters will be tested as alternative method of monitoring to evaluate the soil quality. 88 samples of topsoil were collected in Mexico City since the city is built on two type of geological environments, the samples were separated in two groups (37 soils of volcanic zone and 51 soils of lacustrine zone). The correlations between magnetic parameter and potentially toxic elements were determined for the two groups. The magnetic parameter that showed a significant statistical correlation in the two geological environments were selected to identified the threshold value for to decide whether a sample is contaminated or not.

The magnetic parameters used in this work were the mass magnetic susceptibility (c), percentage frequency dependent susceptibility (cfd%), the value of isothermal remanent magnetization to 0.7 T (SIRM), ration SIRM/c. The identification of type of magnetic mineralogy, concentration and magnetic coercivity was determined by variation of volume magnetic susceptibility (κ) versus temperature (T), the curves of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and ratio S-200.

Diapositiva1

Figura 1. a) Valores de susceptibilidad magnética másica vs porcentaje de la susceptibilidad magnética dependiente de la frecuencia con límites de concentración de granos superparamagnéticos (Dearing, 1999). b) Curvas representativas de magnetización remanente isotermal obtenida de suelos superficiales.

The determination of concentration of potentially toxic elements (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V y Zn) and oxides (Fe2O3 y TiO2) in soil was obtained by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy. In addition were determined the pollution load index (PLI) to compare the levels of pollution of each site. The SIRM was the magnetic parameter that showed a statistically significant correlation between the concentration of Cr (0.54), V (0.36), TiO2 (0.41) y Fe2O3 (0.50) in both geological zones. The mean value of PLI was of 1.85 this suggested that many soils in Mexico City showed a moderate pollution by potentially toxic elements. The statistically determined threshold value of SIRM for polluted sites was of 46 mAm2 kg-1, this threshold value is valid for soils of volcanic zone and lacustrine zone.

 

 Tabla 3.  Correlaciones Pearson para las muestras de suelo superficial de zona volcánica entre parámetros magnéticos, metales tóxicos y ICC
N = 51 c MRIS MRIS/c Cr Cu Ni Pb V Zn TiO2 Fe2O3 ICC
c 1
MRIS 0.36 1
MRIS/c -0.32 0.75 1
Cr 0.06 0.54 0.48 1
Cu 0.09 -0.04 -0.12 0.14 1
Ni -0.20 -0.28 -0.15 -0.09 0.12 1
Pb 0.15 -0.08 -0.23 0.17 0.55 0.22 1
V 0.00 0.33 0.29 0.42 -0.13 -0.32 -0.17 1
Zn -0.10 -0.19 -0.14 0.07 0.80 0.68 0.55 -0.27 1
TiO2 0.03 0.40 0.37 0.58 -0.17 -0.34 -0.21 0.79 -0.30 1
Fe2O3 0.07 0.45 0.37 0.57 -0.11 -0.33 -0.19 0.85 -0.25 0.93 1
ICC -0.02 -0.10 -0.13 0.26 0.69 0.63 0.74 -0.15 0.90 -0.17 -0.14 1

Significancia estadística con valores P < 0.05 marcadas en negro.

The conclusion of this work shows the feasibility of utilize magnetic parameters as alternative of monitoring for to determine or to estimate the concentration of potentially toxic elements in soils of Mexico City.

Diapositiva2

 

Cejudo et al., 2015. Correlación entre elementos potencialmente tóxicos y propiedades magnéticas en suelos de la Ciudad de México para la identificación de sitios contaminados: definición de umbrales magnéticos, 32:50-61. http://satori.geociencias.unam.mx/32-1/(05)Cejudo.pdf

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